By edited by S. Ikeda, T. Fukuzona, T. Sato.
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Additional resources for A better integrated management of disaster risks : toward resilient society to emerging disaster risks in mega-cities
The embankment had been eroded and eventually collapsed. The level of precipitation contributing to the peak discharge of the two rivers occurs only once every 500 years (JSCE, 2004). For example, 267 mm of rainfall fell in six hours. In twenty-four hours, the amount reached 422 mm, far above the level specified in the design of the LFCS. 8/10,000, as in the case of the floodplains of the Ikarashi River and Kariyata River. 46 m) and the very short collapse time (with 10 m of the embankment collapsing in just 5 min).
1) Drastically decreased frequency and intensity of flooding In Japan, ever since the central government assumed responsibility for flood control on large rivers in 1897, there has been disproportionate emphasis on government-led preventive measures to use LFCS to control flooding. Fig. 5 shows the value of flood damage and its ratio to national income over the period of 120 years since the Meiji era. Major flood disasters with more than 1,000 casualties continued to occur until after the Second World War.
The urban facilities, information systems, and networks that are now being built are particularly vulnerable to flood damage. Recent urban floods are examples of a new type of disaster that causes a new type of damage in urban areas. For example, in the 2000 Tokai flood, subway lines and stations, building basements, and underground machine rooms for huge storm water pools were inundated. ATM machines were also damaged. 5 billion yen for 58,000 cars. In 1999 and 2002, floodwaters from small and medium-size rivers in the Fukuoka metropolitan area damaged underground shopping malls and the basements of buildings around Hakata Station.