Download Advances in Molten Salt Chemistry: Volume 1 by Ronald E. Hester (auth.), J. Braunstein, Gleb Mamantov, G. PDF

By Ronald E. Hester (auth.), J. Braunstein, Gleb Mamantov, G. P. Smith (eds.)

ISBN-10: 1475705069

ISBN-13: 9781475705065

Molten salts are investigated by means of very diversified concepts and for fluctuate­ ing reasons, and the consequences are suggested in greatly scattered journals. there's a have to continue investigators conscious of growth in different specialties and to supply scholars with resource and history fabric. Advances in Molten Salt Chemistry hopes to fill those wishes through offering reports of contemporary development provided, insofar as is affordable, with adequate history fabric and remark to be understandable to a nonspecialist. We favor a dialogue of underlying ideas, to the level that they're identified, and we motivate authors to remark significantly at the reliability of information, the software of types, and the cogency of principles and theories. We take a wide vie~ of the suitability of subject matters for inclusion during this sequence. either primary and technological advances have a spot right here, as do experiences on fabrics with regards to molten salts (like liquid silicates, very centred aqueous strategies, suggestions of salts in liquid metals, and good electrolytes). We intend this sequence to serve the desires of these who examine or use molten salts. We welcome feedback of themes and appropriate authors, in addition to reviews at the strengths and shortcomings of what's published.

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More recent work has con- 47 Vibrational Aspects of Molten Salts firmed these earlier results for the alkali-metal sulfate melts and has provided more evidence for small cation perturbation effects in the appearance in the infrared spectra of the formally forbidden (for a Td molecule) v2 (E) mode at ca. 450 cm- I Y23) In contrast to these results, mixtures of divalent metal sulfates with K 2S0 4 (acting as a solvent system) show gross perturbations of the SO~- ion structure. Raman and infrared studies have revealed splitting of the v3 (F2 ) and v4 (F2 ) bands into doublets, consistent with the lowering of SO~- symmetry from Td to C3V , in spectra obtained from 40 mole % solutions of Ag(I), Mg(II), Ca(II), Sr(II), Ba(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), Pb(II), Cn(II), Co(II), and Ni(U) sulfates in molten K 2 S0 4 • (123) Frequency differences between corresponding infrared and Raman bands exclude the possibility of simple I : I metal-sulfate complex formation in these systems but do not distinguish between the possibilities of I : 2 complexes and a more general correlation field splitting arising in a quasi-lattice structure.

The Raman cell assembly shown in Fig. 13 was designed by Bues(48) so as to overcome this limitation. A platinum crucible can be used to contain the sample in this assembly, which again uses a mercury lamp light source, though it clearly could be easily modified for laser excitation of spectra. Maroni and Cairns have produced such a modification, shown in Fig. 14. (86) Arighi and Evans(49) also designed a cell for use with corrosive systems, using a Monel metal container with sapphire windows sealed by Teflon gaskets located at the side and bottom, as shown in Fig.

19 Vibrational Aspects of Molten Salts o B 1"~-4--C Fig. 8. (22) too great for many samples in regions of high extinction coefficient (for example, a 1400-cm-l region of molten nitrates). In addition, all direct transmission through thin films methods suffer from a tendency to distortion of the most intense bands due to refractive index fluctuations with frequency. However, the ready observation of overtone and combination bands in spectra from relatively thick films compensates somewhat for the occasional total absorption by some fundamentals, and the applicability of the wire mesh method to virtually all molten salts up to temperatures well in excess of lOOOoC represents a considerable advantage that this method has over most others.

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