By Mir Bahmanyar
Following the Soviet invasion in 1979, the Mujahideen defenders of Afghanistan built and strengthened many usual cave structures to take advantage of as provide bases and protective positions. The Taliban and Al Qaeda extra reinforced those positions within the Nineties. Following the occasions of September eleven, 2001, those cave platforms have once again come to prominence and websites corresponding to Tora Bora and Zhawar Kili have featured in information headlines around the globe. This identify offers an research of those caves and underground structures, and discusses the U.S.-led Coalition's tactical method of dislodging the enemy from those fortified positions.
Read or Download Afghanistan Cave Complexes 1979-2004: Mountain strongholds of the Mujahideen, Taliban & Al Qaeda (Fortress, Volume 26) PDF
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Extra resources for Afghanistan Cave Complexes 1979-2004: Mountain strongholds of the Mujahideen, Taliban & Al Qaeda (Fortress, Volume 26)
There was a bakery and by the entrance was a stack of fresh naan bread. In the storage area, there were metal shelving units where boxes of arms and ammunition were neatly stacked. Further on, there was a storage cave for mines. There was every kind of mine imaginable: antitank, antivehicular and antipersonnel mines from Italy, France, the Netherlands and Germany. Hand grenade and artillery simulators were stored separately. The demolition explosives of various types and detonators were stored in a separate cave.
Two members of the team enter the tunnel with wire communications to the surface. The team works its way through the tunnel, probing with bayonets for booby traps and mines and looking for hidden entrances, food and arms caches, water locks, and air vents. As the team moves through the tunnel, compass headings and distances traversed are called to the surface. A team member at the surface maps the tunnel as exploitation progresses. Captured arms and intelligence documents are secured and retrieved for destruction or analysis.
Embassy bombings in Kenya and Tanzania. Zhawar Kili faces southeast toward Pakistan and is roughly 3 miles from the Pakistani border. The camp is composed of an aboveground site and two separate cave complexes, covering an area approximately three square miles. Zhawar Kili has at least 11 major tunnels, with some of them 1,600ft (500m) long, containing a hotel, a mosque, arms depots and repair shops, a garage, a medical point, a radio center and a kitchen. A gasoline generator provided power to the tunnels and the hotel's video player.