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By A. Schuster, J. Nicholson

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Extra resources for An Introduction to the Theory of Optics

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There is no such thing as a truly isotropic surface, and even good reflectors have some bulk scatter. And for the case of a transmitting sample, where two surfaces and the bulk are scattering, the idea of illuminated surface area becomes a little fuzzy at best. However, this only means that the BRDF, as measured, is no longer the scattered radiance divided by the incident irradiance. It still makes perfect sense to specify and measure the last term defined in Eq. 9). The BSDF was defined in order to include other types of scatter, such as that from transmissive optics.

The underlying principles developed to reduce scatter in optical systems provide a useful background for extension of these techniques into the areas of quality inspection and process control. Chapter 1 has presented basic concepts and definitions, and an outline of the conversion technique used to relate scatter to surface roughness parameters. Chapters 2, 3, and 4 define surface roughness and discuss its relationship to topographic scatter via diffraction theory. Polarization of scattered light is discussed in Chapter 5.

51) dT 2 t =o The autocorrelation approach suffers from the same effective-bandwidth limits as the power spectrum did in the last section. They each use finite length scans of the profile, sampled at finite increments, as input to equations defined for all values over an infinite scan length. 52) n=0 where ti k = kd is the slip. The autocovariance function can take on both positive and negative values. If the surface is periodic, then G(ti) will also be periodic with the same wavelength. As indicated in Fig.

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