By Edward B. Clark, W.E. Amend
This consultant describes a whole procedure for carrying out box hardness trying out to estimate the yield power of pipeline steels. the method is non-destructive so it really is appropriate for in-situ checking out on working pipelines, at pipe garage amenities, or quite a few different destinations. It additionally allows method adaptations which are appropriate for program in numerous occasions and prerequisites which may be encountered on a pipeline right-of-way and somewhere else. box hardness trying out isn't a 'one dimension matches all' technique the place a unmarried hardness trying out technique is appropriate for program in all occasions that may be encountered
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Extra resources for Applications guide for determining the yield strength of in-service pipe by hardness evaluation : final report
20 as the minimum HRB estimate. 2. A variation of the preceding example is also shown to illustrate the effect of increasing the chance that the minimum hardness would be less than the minimum value determined. 01 (a 1/100 rate of occurrence by chance). 65 as the minimum HRB estimate. 65. 65. 5 Additional Considerations In addition to determining the sample size estimates and determining the minimum estimated hardness for the population being sampled, additional sampling-related criteria exist that must be considered.
Cutoff values from such tables usually are denoted by zα * , where randomly drawn observations are expected to be below zα * by chance [(1- α * ) × 100]% of the time. 4 confusion with another use of α described later in this Section. -4 -2 0 2 4 x Figure 6. 8 The terms used in Equation 4 are only useful if the mean and standard deviation of the pipeline population hardness levels are known. In practice, this is not the case and these parameters must be estimated from a sample of the population data.
Another possible variation that could be encountered is pipe produced by a single manufacturer for the same pipe order from two or more plate/skelp suppliers that may represent more than one steel making process. For hardness testing statistical sampling applications, the latter situation would be difficult to deal with but such a possibility must be recognized. The previously described types of variations can easily result in supposedly identical pipe having different strength levels which would violate the requirement that the pipe to be evaluated constitutes a uniform population.